Georgia’s ratification, on 6 December 1865, meant that Mississippi was bound by the amendment, even though it never did ratify it. The states of New Jersey, Delaware and Kentucky, which also voted against the amendment initially, later voted for ratification – although it took Kentucky until 1976 to do so in what was by then a symbolic gesture.
‘Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.’
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Public spaces became increasingly valued during lockdown – and increasingly policed. We must continue to reclaim and celebrate it for everyone, says Morag Rose
Without active protection from the state, the rejected Project Big Picture is a taste of things to come for English football, argues Alex Maguire
Anti-racist movements in France are challenging both the state and the traditional left, writes Selma Oumari
As education becomes increasingly authoritarian, the battle against racist educational enclosure policies is one the left cannot afford to lose, argues Jessica Perera
Alethea Warrington describes how the fossil fuels industry hopes to change its image but not its practice
Ndella Diouf Paye writes about her experiences working as a carer for a private company