On 3 July 1981, Leroy Cooper was arrested on Selbourne Street in Toxteth, Liverpool. The heavy-handed treatment of Mr Cooper led to interventions by watching locals and three police officers were injured.
The following night, Toxteth exploded and for the following nine nights pitched battles were fought on the streets, between police and youth. It was the first time CS gas had been employed on the mainland and contrary to instructions it was fired directly at individuals, resulting in many serious injuries. Police were forced to withdraw from a one-mile stretch of the main road through Toxteth, 150 buildings were set alight and some 480 police officers injured. The Scarman Report into the Toxteth riots concluded that, ‘complex political, social and economic factors’ had created a ‘disposition towards violent protest’.
‘More than anything, the fallout from the riots changed the face of policing forever and focused the attentions of Margaret Thatcher’s government not just on issues of race, but those of poverty and inner-city decay – poor white youths had joined in, too.’ 4 February 2007, The Observer
Even worse than failing to win office would be winning it while unprepared for the realities of government. Christine Berry considers what Labour needs to do to avoid the fate of Syriza in Greece
The Conservative Party is in a process of ideological decline or even disintegration, argue James Butler and Richard Seymour.
Landry Ninteretse and Ian Rivera share perspectives from Kenya and the Philippines and call for universal energy systems that are clean and renewable, public and decentralised
Red Pepper’s picks of The World Transformed festival, in Brighton from 21-24 September
Winning elections is not enough. To transform society we need to involve the people in policy making, argue Kerem Dikerdem and Annie Quick
Chloe Tomlinson lays out the battle lines for a more egalitarian, democratic and holistic education system. Essential reading ahead of The World Transformed education sessions
As a US-friendly no-deal Brexit inches closer, Bonnie Castillo of National Nurses United explains why US nurses have joined the fight against NHS privatisation. Recommended reading ahead of The World Transformed health sessions