Dr Joseph Ignace Guillotin ‘belonged to a small reform movement that sought to banish the death penalty completely. On October 10th 1789 – the second day of the debate about France’s penal code – Guillotin proposed six articles to the new Legislative Assembly. In one of them he proposed that “the criminal shall be decapitated; this will be done solely by means of a simple mechanism”. This was defined as a “machine that beheads painlessly”.
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Andrea Sandor explores how community-led developments are putting democracy at the heart of the planning process
D Hunter's 'Tracksuits, Traumas and Class Traitors' is an exploration of working-class struggle and strength, writes Liam Kennedy
Jake Woodier reviews a new documentary film that brings heist aesthetics to a story of debt activism
‘Radical federalism’ should do more than rearrange the constitutional furniture, writes Undod’s Robat Idris
Proudly 'anti-woke' posturing is just the latest government attempt to memorialise white supremacy. Meghan Tinsley reports on the politics of commemoration
Government demands for public sector ‘neutrality’ uphold a harmful status quo. For civil servant Sophie Izon, it's time to speak out