Get Red Pepper's email newsletter. Enter your email address to receive our latest articles, updates and news.

×

Response: A constructive dialogue for change

John Bellamy Foster's critique of capitalism's ecologically destructive nature is sound, writes Ted Benton, but we need to think less vaguely about bringing together a coalition for change

November 30, 2010
7 min read

Bellamy Foster has played a leading role in the US in arguing for the realignment of socialist and ecological politics. In a series of path-breaking writings he has demonstrated the centrality of Marxian materialism as a philosophical basis for this, and has provided readings of Marx’s own work that show not only its compatibility with radical ecologism, but also its crucial theoretical contribution to it. The central idea that Bellamy Foster and his associates derive from Marx is the ‘ecological rift’: a destructive dislocation between capital accumulation and the cycles and processes of nature that is endemic to capitalism. It is this dynamic that is driving the global economy to overshoot the boundaries set by the carrying capacity of the planet to sustain not only human but all life.

It follows that any politics that aspires to resolve the ecological crisis must be an anti-capitalist one, and to combine this with social justice must also be a socialist one. Consistent with this line of argument, Bellamy Foster in his Red Pepper article argues effectively against the single issue focus of much elite and popular environmental action on climate change. This is not to deny that climate change is a profound and urgent challenge. Rather, it is to show that climate change is just one dimension of a deeper, much more wide-ranging and potentially devastating crisis in the relationship of contemporary globalising capitalism and our nature-given life-support systems. Although not explained in this piece, policies currently proposed to deal with climate change in abstraction from the wider context are likely not only to be ineffective in relation to climate change, but run the risk of intensifying other dimensions of the ecological crisis and further entrench global inequalities. Displacement of agro-ecosystems and tropical forests in favour of biofuels and the renewed advocacy of nuclear power are obvious examples.

So far, Bellamy Foster’s arguments are very much to be welcomed and are sure to enhance the essential project of bringing together diverse sources of discontent and resistance to the prevailing socio-economic (dis) order. However, I do have a few reservations. First, the main burden of the article is a critique of the ‘degrowth’ perspective, and of the ‘green Keynesianism’ now apparently espoused, albeit provisionally, by Martinez Allier. Again, the content of his critique, in both cases, is one I’d broadly agree with. The key problem, however, is what I’ve elsewhere called its sectarianism. By this, I mean the insistence on drawing boundaries that set up oppositions with thinkers and activists who might otherwise be allies. One tactic is to pick on areas of vagueness or ambiguity in the writer you are critiquing, and sharpen your reading of them to make them better targets for your critique. Foster does this both to Latouche in relation to the possibility of a sustainable capitalism, and to Martinez Allier’s very provisional endorsement of green Keynesianism. Again, proposals for shorter working weeks and citizens income are taken as palliative measures to maintain family incomes while keeping ‘the underlying structure of capital accumulation and markets intact’. These measures are reduced, in his account, to provision of income and ‘leisure’, neglecting the human need for useful and creative work.

This essentially ungenerous reading of others who are struggling to develop critical perspectives and strategic ways to move towards an alternative way of social being is likely to corrode the possibility to form the broad coalitions that will be necessary if anything like the positive transcendence of capitalist power is to be achieved. A different way of criticising Latouche, for example, would be to start with his admission that though a sustainable capitalism is ‘conceivable’, it is ‘unrealistic in practice’. That might lead to a more constructive dialogue about what sorts of coalition and transitional policies might take us in the direction of both sustainability and transcendence of capitalist relations. Similarly with the shorter working week and citizens income. These are potentially transformative innovations, detaching livelihood from wage labour, and freeing time and energy not just for ‘leisure’ but also for all kinds of constructive, convivial and creative activities that might allow us find meaning and value outside the constraints of labour and consumerism.

Another casualty of the tendency to make enemies out of potential friends is the critical neglect of other Marxian and socialist attempts to bring together left and green perspectives. I have in mind especially the work of thinkers such as Jim O’Connor, Ariel Salleh, Joel Kovel, Joan Roelofs and others associated with the journal Capitalism Nature Socialism. The very insightful analysis of the capital/ nature metabolism given by Jim O’Connor in his notion of a ‘second contradiction of capitalism’, for example, is dismissed by Foster in a few brief paragraphs of his (in most respects brilliant) recent book Ecological Revolution. O’Connor’s analysis has the advantage of linking the degradation of the conditions of production (and of life) to endemic features of capitalist political economy, while at the same time bringing into the frame social movement activism, civil society and state responses. While the key idea of metabolic rift is powerful and necessary, it is more limited in its explanatory purchase than O’Connor’s approach – a constructive dialogue would be more useful than a quick demolition.

Finally, and most important, the negative focus of critical work such as Foster’s, necessary though it is, tends to cut against the urgent necessity to think positively and concretely about how to put together coalitions for change, what transitional policies to promote and endorse, what sort of feasible, just and nature-friendly society we might envisage as the inspiration of the movement. It has to be said that, though there is nothing fundamental to disagree with in Foster’s characterisation of the ‘principles’ for such a society, his statement remains no less abstract than the ‘degrowth’ perspective that he criticises.

Moreover, there is a real risk, in the absence of concrete thinking that contradictions, tensions and obstacles in the way of change will fail to be addressed. For example, Foster does acknowledge the need for new and broad coalitions: ‘..a “co-revolutionary movement”…that will bring together the traditional working class critique of capital, the critique of imperialism, the critiques of patriarchy and racism, and the critique of ecologically destructive growth (along with the respective mass movements).’ Again there is not much that I would disagree with in terms of the breadth of the coalition he advocates, but there are immense obstacles to its formation. For one thing, there is a great over-simplification in the reference to the ‘traditional working class critique of capitalism’ – especially if we bring into the picture the ‘actually existing’ movement that currently carries it. There have been many working class critiques, and most, including Marx’s, had at their core the improvement of working class living standards – meaning more consumption, more demands on over-stretched ecosystems. Sheer lack of even the most basic conditions of bodily integrity and health makes this an undeniable priority for policy in most of today’s world – but to address that stark fact in an ecologically sustainable way puts into question labour movement demands for ever-greater consumer power in the ‘rich’ countries.

It follows that qualitatively different values and priorities have to be argued for in at least some sections of western labour movements. And this means big cultural shifts of the sort that might come from collaboration among diverse social movements – it might include, for example, fighting for a shorter working week, better working conditions, and more public provision of spaces for non-destructive creative activity. In short, the Marxian heritage has an indispensible offering in terms of the critical analysis of capitalism, but those of us who share that heritage need to be more receptive than we have been to the thought and practice of greens and others who do not, or do not yet, share our understanding of the essential link between capitalism and the destruction of life.

Red Pepper is an independent, non-profit magazine that puts left politics and culture at the heart of its stories. We think publications should embrace the values of a movement that is unafraid to take a stand, radical yet not dogmatic, and focus on amplifying the voices of the people and activists that make up our movement. If you think so too, please support Red Pepper in continuing our work by becoming a subscriber today.
Why not try our new pay as you feel subscription? You decide how much to pay.
Share this article  
  share on facebook     share on twitter  

Labour’s NEC has started to empower party members – but we still have a mountain to climb
The crunch executive meeting ahead of Labour conference agreed some welcome changes, writes Michael Calderbank, but there is still much further to go

Working class theatre: Save Our Steel takes the stage
A new play inspired by Port Talbot’s ‘Save Our Steel’ campaign asks questions about the working class leaders of today. Adam Johannes talks to co-director Rhiannon White about the project, the people and the politics behind it

The dawn of commons politics
As supporters of the new 'commons politics' win office in a variety of European cities, Stacco Troncoso and Ann Marie Utratel chart where this movement came from – and where it may be going

A very social economist
Hilary Wainwright says the ideas of Robin Murray, who died in June, offer a practical alternative to neoliberalism

Art the Arms Fair: making art not war
Amy Corcoran on organising artistic resistance to the weapons dealers’ London showcase

Beware the automated landlord
Tenants of the automated landlord are effectively paying two rents: one in money, the other in information for data harvesting, writes Desiree Fields

Black Journalism Fund – Open Editorial Meeting
3-5pm Saturday 23rd September at The World Transformed in Brighton

Immigration detention: How the government is breaking its own rules
Detention is being used to punish ex-prisoners all over again, writes Annahita Moradi

A better way to regenerate a community
Gilbert Jassey describes a pioneering project that is bringing migrants and local people together to repopulate a village in rural Spain

Fast food workers stand up for themselves and #McStrike – we’re loving it!
McDonald's workers are striking for the first time ever in Britain, reports Michael Calderbank

Two years of broken promises: how the UK has failed refugees
Stefan Schmid investigates the ways Syrian refugees have been treated since the media spotlight faded

West Papua’s silent genocide
The brutal occupation of West Papua is under-reported - but UK and US corporations are profiting from the violence, write Eliza Egret and Tom Anderson

Activate, the new ‘Tory Momentum’, is 100% astroturf
The Conservatives’ effort at a grassroots youth movement is embarrassingly inept, writes Samantha Stevens

Peer-to-peer production and the partner state
Michel Bauwens and Vasilis Kostakis argue that we need to move to a commons-centric society – with a state fit for the digital age

Imagining a future free of oppression
Writer, artist and organiser Ama Josephine Budge says holding on to our imagination of tomorrow helps create a different understanding today

The ‘alt-right’ is an unstable coalition – with one thing holding it together
Mike Isaacson argues that efforts to define the alt-right are in danger of missing its central component: eugenics

Fighting for Peace: the battles that inspired generations of anti-war campaigners
Now the threat of nuclear war looms nearer again, we share the experience of eighty-year-old activist Ernest Rodker, whose work is displayed at The Imperial War Museum. With Jane Shallice and Jenny Nelson he discussed a recent history of the anti-war movement.

Put public purpose at the heart of government
Victoria Chick stresses the need to restore the public good to economic decision-making

Don’t let the world’s biggest arms fair turn 20
Eliza Egret talks to activists involved in almost two decades of protest against London’s DSEI arms show

The new municipalism is part of a proud radical history
Molly Conisbee reflects on the history of citizens taking collective control of local services

With the rise of Corbyn, is there still a place for the Green Party?
Former Green principal speaker Derek Wall says the party may struggle in the battle for votes, but can still be important in the battle of ideas

Fearless Cities: the new urban movements
A wave of new municipalist movements has been experimenting with how to take – and transform – power in cities large and small. Bertie Russell and Oscar Reyes report on the growing success of radical urban politics around the world

A musical fightback against school arts cuts
Elliot Clay on why his new musical turns the spotlight on the damage austerity has done to arts education, through the story of one school band's battle

Neoliberalism: the break-up tour
Sarah Woods and Andrew Simms ask why, given the trail of destruction it has left, we are still dancing to the neoliberal tune

Cat Smith MP: ‘Jeremy Corbyn has authenticity. You can’t fake that’
Cat Smith, shadow minister for voter engagement and youth affairs and one of the original parliamentary backers of Corbyn’s leadership, speaks to Ashish Ghadiali

To stop the BBC interviewing climate deniers, we need to make climate change less boring
To stop cranks like Lord Lawson getting airtime, we need to provoke more interesting debates around climate change than whether it's real or not, writes Leo Barasi

Tory Glastonbury? Money can’t buy you cultural relevance
Adam Peggs on why the left has more fun

Essay: After neoliberalism, what next?
There are economically-viable, socially-desirable alternatives to the failed neoliberal economic model, writes Jayati Ghosh

With the new nuclear ban treaty, it’s time to scrap Trident – and spend the money on our NHS
As a doctor, I want to see money spent on healthcare not warfare, writes David McCoy - Britain should join the growing international movement for disarmament

Inglorious Empire: What the British Did to India
Inglorious Empire: What the British Did to India, by Shashi Tharoor, reviewed by Ian Sinclair


2