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The defeat of President Hugo Chávez's constitutional reform proposals in December's referendum has triggered a wide debate on the Venezuelan left about the next steps in the country's Bolivarian revolution. Here, two articles by critical chavistas are introduced by Red Pepper's Latin America editor Pablo Navarrete

January 30, 2008
2 min read


Pablo NavarretePablo Navarrete is a British-Chilean journalist and documentary filmmaker. He is the founder of www.alborada.net and a correspondent for the Latin America Bureau (LAB)


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On Sunday 2 December, a series of controversial constitutional reforms proposed by Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez and the country’s national assembly were narrowly defeated in a public referendum widely covered by the international media. To the surprise of many inside and outside Venezuela, 50.9 per cent of voters rejected the reforms, with 49.1 per cent voting in favour of them.

The results were a particularly harsh blow for Chávez, who had told his supporters in the run up to the vote that this was the most important election of his presidency. The defeat came only a year after his resounding presidential election victory, in which he trounced the opposition candidate by nearly 26 percentage points, winning over 63 per cent of the vote. When the results were examined in more detail, it soon became clear that rather than the opposition gaining a significant number of extra votes compared to their performance in the December 2006 presidential elections, Chávez’s defeat was the result of abstentions by an important sector of those who had voted for him previously.

  • Why did abstention win?

    In the following article Venezuelan sociologist Javier Biardeau offers his analysis of why Chávez lost nearly three million supporters to abstention. In his article, which was originally published the day after the referendum, Biardeau warns of the tensions between ‘authoritarian hegemony and democratic counter-hegemony’ within ‘Chávismo’.

  • Grass-roots Chávismo awakes

    The second piece is by another Venezuelan sociologist, Reinaldo Iturriza, who, like Biardeau, has been closely associated with the Bolivarian process. This surveys the debates within Chávismo in the aftermath of the referendum, arguing that the process has a bright future if it learns the lessons from the defeat.

    We welcome your comments on any of these and other articles about Venezuela on Red Pepper’s Venezuela blog.

    More information:

    http://redpepper.blogs.com/venezuela

    www.venezuelanalysis.com

  • Red Pepper is an independent, non-profit magazine that puts left politics and culture at the heart of its stories. We think publications should embrace the values of a movement that is unafraid to take a stand, radical yet not dogmatic, and focus on amplifying the voices of the people and activists that make up our movement. If you think so too, please support Red Pepper in continuing our work by becoming a subscriber today.
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    Pablo NavarretePablo Navarrete is a British-Chilean journalist and documentary filmmaker. He is the founder of www.alborada.net and a correspondent for the Latin America Bureau (LAB)


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