Get Red Pepper's email newsletter. Enter your email address to receive our latest articles, updates and news.
A demonstration against Prism in Berlin during US president Barack Obama’s visit, organised by the Pirate Party. Photo: Mike Herbst
What was your gut reaction to the Snowden revelations? As the story broke, most of the media served up a diet of uncritical ‘explainers’ (on GCHQ, traffic data and a host of other topics) amid the story of Snowden ‘the person’, which ignored the magnitude of the truths he exposed. The potential for collective shock or anger was managed and mitigated.
Forty-two per cent of Britons reportedly support government agencies ‘going beyond the law in order to obtain information that helps them fight serious crime and terrorism’. There are pockets of organised resistance, but thus far the demands to ‘stop mass surveillance’ in many Snowden-inspired petitions have acquired all the defiant hopelessness of the ‘smash capitalism’ banner.
To resist more effectively we must reject the framework of a trade-off between privacy and ‘security’, one that pretends mass surveillance, population databases and drones can coexist with freedom and democracy. We must rein in the organisations doing the surveillance.
Caught with its hands in the till, GCHQ should be having its ‘expenses scandal’ moment. In addition to accessing telephone and phone records from service providers, we now know it constantly taps data from the fibre-optic cables through which so much of our communication is routed. With no meaningful oversight, it has used its powers for such activities as spying on G8 protesters. The latest indiscretions come atop damning evidence of its complicity in US torture and indefinite detention, and its cooperation with the loyalist paramilitaries that murdered civil rights lawyer Pat Finucane.
All this is airbrushed from the British psyche. Despite widespread debate about the US’s use of torture, when it comes to the UK’s own unaccountable agencies, too many are content not to know. It’s as if the nation really does buy into the notion that intelligence services are merely a foil for the really bad guys, and for expediency’s sake, it must be necessary to bend a few laws and dispense with the niceties of due process and human rights.
When it comes to counter-terrorism, or countering dissent, politicians appear entirely subservient, with spies and securocrats running the show. We should be drawing big red lines around the activities of the intelligence agencies; instead we’ve expanded their mandate to ‘cybercrime’ and ‘cyber-defence’.
There have been calls, post-Snowden, for stronger data protection laws. These reforms are essential – particularly in regulating corporate plunder of our data – but for governments, the whole point of having secret intelligence agencies is that they can act outside the law. UK law explicitly says ‘No entry on or interference with property or with wireless telegraphy [by these agencies] shall be unlawful if authorised by the home secretary’. Privacy International is suing GCHQ at the Investigatory Powers Tribunal over its involvement in Prism and Tempora on human rights grounds, but it has a legal mountain to climb.
The case is an important challenge to the limitless discretion at the heart of the British secret state. But to bring the agencies under any meaningful control, we desperately need a public inquiry into Snowden’s revelations as well – one that fosters serious conversation about what ‘national security’ does and does not entail. What are the ‘threats’ to the state, or to ‘our way of life?’ Al Qaida? Iran? Stop G8? No Dash for Gas? Really?
When police spies aren’t infiltrating movements, they could be accessing your ‘traffic data’, which includes who you’ve called or emailed and when, as well as what websites you’ve visited. An officer can go through your mobile phone records simply by obtaining the consent of a senior officer.
In 2006, largely at the UK’s behest, the EU passed a directive requiring telephone and internet service providers to retain traffic and subscriber data in case law enforcement or intelligence officers need it later. Under the UK’s ‘data retention’ regulations, it’s then kept for a year and made available to law enforcement and security agencies upon request.
According the UK surveillance commissioner, UK police and law enforcement agencies have accessed personal information from this data retention regime over 500,000 times per year since the regulations came into force. This is a lot of surveillance, especially when compared with the much lower, even fractional usage in many other EU member states. In November the European Court of Justice will rule on the legality of the EU directive following a clutch of national challenges in a case that has taken on much more significance since Snowden.
Regardless of the outcome, it is hardly a radical voice that now calls for reform or repeal of the UK’s and EU’s data retention laws, devised to allow data access to police without judicial control. Retention periods should be slashed in favour of provisions for ‘freezing’ or ‘preserving’ data in serious crime cases, with requests authorised by judges instead of ministers and senior police.
The timing of Snowden’s revelations has been helpful to supporters of the draft EU data protection regulation, currently under negotiation in Brussels. Though an army of corporate lobbyists had previously gained the upper hand, it now looks as if corporations will have to carry the can for the NSA and GCHQ’s indiscretions, in which they played a supporting role.
This is good news, for a brave new world of ‘big data’ is upon us: storage of massive amounts of social network information; public and private databases; the internet in general; and the increasing number of things connected to it. Using complex algorithms, the information can be mined, cross-referenced and profiled to discover correlations and patterns. This already happens at scales that most of us cannot begin to comprehend.
It’s not all bad. ‘Big data’ promises understanding and advances in some sciences and in public serve provision. But Snowden has revealed a darker side. Presented with billions of dollars, unfettered access, and a mandate to mitigate all security risks, the NSA has established programmes allowing analysts to query ‘nearly everything a typical user does on the internet’, according to one of the NSA presentations leaked by Snowden. We can’t stop big data, but we have to stop its use for nefarious purposes.
According to researcher Torin Monahan, what intelligence agencies really want is a kind of ‘Google for the police, something that lets us look people up really quickly without having to open an investigation’. Snowden has revealed how quickly such a system has been created.
Now consider who else might wish to ‘Google’ your data: insurers, marketers, banks, employers, governments and the many ‘data aggregators’ who already collect all this and sell it back to everyone else. The only thing even notionally preventing a ‘big data’ open season are data protection rules, based on principles such as informed consent, minimal processing, purpose limitation, firewalls, proper handling, redress and so on. It’s boring, technical stuff and it requires people to actively engage in the protection of their own data. It’s far from perfect, but it’s all we have.
We’ll need a herculean effort to tame the surveillance society, but thanks to Snowden some of the dangers are more apparent. What is needed now is a broad-based campaign, taking these issues out of their expert silo and into tangible public demands for reform of the surveillance state and proper controls on big data.
Ben Hayes works with Statewatch and the Transnational Institute @drbenhayes
'Docs Not Cops' write that we must resist attempts to make our NHS any less universal
Louis Mendee explains the real human costs of climate change for the global south.
From climate change to automation to demographic shifts, Mathew Lawrence explains the challenges our economy will face in the coming decade.
Fifty years after the Abortion Act, women are still dying from being denied basic services, write activists from Feminist Fightback
We need to tackle the patronising ideology that lets Tory think-tanks sneer at social tenants, writes Emma Dent Coad
Acid Corbynism allows people to imagine a future beyond the paltry offerings of capitalism, writes Keir Milburn
'We wanted to use a shared love of the beautiful game to stand in solidarity with those living under occupation', writes Kate Hadley.
Priti Patel's shady deals are business as usual. Enough is enough, writes Eleanor Penny
Boris Johnson is a local disaster and a national embarrassment. He must go, writes James Clouting
The global elite have been stealing from society on an unprecedented scale, writes Tom Walker
Labour Party laws are being used to quash dissent
Richard Kuper writes that Labour's authorities are more concerned with suppressing pro-Palestine activism than with actually tackling antisemitism
Catalan independence is not just ‘nationalism’ – it’s a rebellion against nationalism
Ignasi Bernat and David Whyte argue that Catalonia's independence movement is driven by solidarity – and resistance to far-right Spanish nationalists
Tabloids do not represent the working class
The tabloid press claims to be an authentic voice of the working class - but it's run by and for the elites, writes Matt Thompson
As London City Airport turns 30, let’s imagine a world without it
London City Airport has faced resistance for its entire lifetime, writes Ali Tamlit – and some day soon we will win
The first world war sowed the seeds of the Russian revolution
An excerpt from 'October', China Mieville's book revisiting the story of the Russian Revolution
Academies run ‘on the basis of fear’
Wakefield City Academies Trust (WCAT) was described in a damning report as an organisation run 'on the basis of fear'. Jon Trickett MP examines an education system in crisis.
‘There is no turning back to a time when there wasn’t migration to Britain’
David Renton reviews the Migration Museum's latest exhibition
#MeToo is necessary – but I’m sick of having to prove my humanity
Women are expected to reveal personal trauma to be taken seriously, writes Eleanor Penny
Meet the digital feminists
We're building new online tools to create a new feminist community and tackle sexism wherever we find it, writes Franziska Grobke
The Marikana women’s fight for justice, five years on
Marienna Pope-Weidemann meets Sikhala Sonke, a grassroots social justice group led by the women of Marikana
Forget ‘Columbus Day’ – this is the Day of Indigenous Resistance
By Leyli Horna, Marcela Terán and Sebastián Ordonez for Wretched of the Earth
Uber and the corporate capture of e-petitions
Steve Andrews looks at a profit-making petition platform's questionable relationship with the cab company
You might be a centrist if…
What does 'centrist' mean? Tom Walker identifies the key markers to help you spot centrism in the wild
Black Journalism Fund Open Editorial Meeting in Leeds
Friday 13th October, 5pm to 7pm, meeting inside the Laidlaw Library, Leeds University
This leadership contest can transform Scottish Labour
Martyn Cook argues that with a new left-wing leader the Scottish Labour Party can make a comeback
Review: No Is Not Enough
Samir Dathi reviews No Is Not Enough: Defeating the New Shock Politics, by Naomi Klein
Building Corbyn’s Labour from the ground up: How ‘the left’ won in Hackney South
Heather Mendick has gone from phone-banker at Corbyn for Leader to Hackney Momentum organiser to secretary of her local party. Here, she shares her top tips on transforming Labour from the bottom up
Five things to know about the independence movement in Catalonia
James O'Nions looks at the underlying dynamics of the Catalan independence movement
‘This building will be a library!’ From referendum to general strike in Catalonia
Ignasi Bernat and David Whyte report from the Catalan general strike, as the movements prepare to build a new republic
Chlorine chickens are just the start: Liam Fox’s Brexit trade free-for-all
A hard-right free marketer is now in charge of our trade policy. We urgently need to develop an alternative vision, writes Nick Dearden
There is no ‘cult of Corbyn’ – this is a movement preparing for power
The pundits still don’t understand that Labour’s new energy is about ‘we’ not ‘me’, writes Hilary Wainwright
Debt relief for the hurricane-hit islands is the least we should do
As the devastation from recent hurricanes in the Caribbean becomes clearer, the calls for debt relief for affected countries grow stronger, writes Tim Jones
‘Your credit score is not sufficient to enter this location’: the risks of the ‘smart city’
Jathan Sadowski explains techno-political trends of exclusion and enforcement in our cities, and how to overcome this new type of digital oppression
Why I’m standing with pregnant women and resisting NHS passport checks
Dr Joanna Dobbin says the government is making migrant women afraid to seek healthcare, increasing their chances of complications or even death
‘Committees in Defence of the Referendum’: update from Catalonia
Ignasi Bernat and David Whyte on developments as the Catalan people resist the Spanish state's crackdown on their independence referendum