Get Red Pepper's email newsletter. Enter your email address to receive our latest articles, updates and news.
Ivo van Hove’s production of Antigone at the Barbican. Photo: Jan Versweyveld
It’s hard to imagine what Sophocles would have made of Stink Foot, Jeff James’s adaptation of his play Philoctetes at The Yard, Hackney, recently. Staged in a pool of treacle, which ends up splattering actors and the front row of the audience alike, it boasts of being a ‘bold and messy retelling’ of the play first performed at the Festival of Dionysus in 409BCE during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. The treacle was supplied by Tate and Lyle, taking Tate sponsorship of the arts to a whole new level of stickiness.
Philoctetes was dumped on an uninhabited island by Odysseus and his mates on their way to the Trojan War after his leg started to fester from a snake bite and they couldn’t stand the smell any more (hence ‘stink foot’, hence the treacle). Nine years into the war, though, an oracle tells them that they’ll never win until Philoctetes joins them with his magic bow. Odysseus dispatches Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, to trick Philoctetes into giving up his bow and coming along to bail out his former comrades.
The production gives a modern twist to the ancient Greek practice of having only male actors, even for female parts, by casting a woman as Odysseus and Heracles, the deus ex machina who sorts everything out at the end. And it opens with Neoptolemus working out to a loop of Meghan Trainor’s hit ‘All About that Bass’ – a song that offers a different take on the usual modern attitudes towards the female form: ‘You know I won’t be no stick-figure, silicone Barbie doll.’ You get the feeling that if Jeff James had been curating the new British Museum exhibition about the body in ancient Greek art (26 March-5 July), he’d have titled it ‘Defining booty’ rather than beauty.
It was all about the bass at the start of the Theatre Royal Stratford East’s production of Sophocles’ Antigone too. Produced in collaboration with the Derby Theatre, where it opened in September 2014, it went on tour before its run in London this spring. Super subwoofers had the building vibrating for the concrete-basement, warehouse-wasteland stage set that gave a gang-culture angle to the old tale of Oedipus’s daughter defying the new king Creon to provide her brother Polynices with a proper burial.
The Theatre Royal has a glorious history of reaching out to new audiences going back to when Joan Littlewood and her Theatre Workshop company turned a decaying Victorian structure in London’s east end into a ‘people’s theatre’. Its output has ranged from Oh What a Lovely War! and Barbara Windsor to Five Guys Named Moe and The Big Life, the first black British musical to transfer to the West End.
There’s a little-known tribute to Littlewood engraved on the fence around an electricity substation next to the Olympic stadium. Caroline Bird’s poem was one of five commissioned for the Olympics:
‘She wanted a university of the streets.
No cup and saucer hats. She chain-smoked.
She said, “To hell with them.” She changed the world.’
Roy Williams’ production with Pilot Theatre, aimed at teenagers and young adults, is a fitting heir to this tradition. There are CCTV cameras representing the watching gods, Antigone becomes ‘Tig’ and the love interest between her and Creon’s son Haemon gets a more central role than in the original. But Sophocles would recognise his play here, and the ancient Greek audience would recognise the conflicts played out between the state and family (here gang and ‘fam’), men and women, secular and divine.
Antigone was also playing at the Barbican this spring, with Oscar-winning Juliette Binoche in the title role and a sample from Lou Reed’s Heroin building to a dramatic musical akmé. This was the second major production of the tragedy in London in less than three years, following the National Theatre in the summer of 2012 with Christopher Eccleston and Jodie Whittaker.
The Barbican used a new translation by T S Eliot Prize-winning poet Anne Carson. The National used Don Taylor’s version, originally commissioned by the BBC for its 1986 Sophocles trilogy The Theban Plays.
Taylor has Antigone tell Creon:
‘All these, these senators of yours,
They all agree with me in their hearts.
But there is no gag like terror, is there
Gentlemen? And tyrants must have their way.’
Creon responds that:
‘You should be ashamed
Setting yourself up against the majority,
Disregarding the will of the people.’
This single exchange illustrates both the enduring relevance of Sophocles’ work and the multiple interpretations it makes possible. ‘There is no gag like terror’ (another translation refers to ‘lips . . . frozen shut with fear’) could today be applied with equal effect in the context of the Charlie Hebdo and Copenhagen killings and in relation to state-sponsored oppression and violence.
Berthold Brecht’s 1948 production opened the play in a Berlin air raid shelter, with Creon as a manic ‘Mein Führer’ and Antigone an anti-fascist hero. Prisoners on Robben Island turned it into an allegory of South African apartheid, with Nelson Mandela playing a cruel Creon and Antigone cast as a freedom fighter standing up against injustice. One of the reasons why the plays of Sophocles and the other Greek tragedians have been revived so often and in so many places is that even the most censorious of regimes tend to miss the fact that 2,500-year-old texts by ancient writers can still speak loudly and clearly to modern audiences.
With no one has this been more the case than with Sophocles’ younger contemporary Euripides. More of his plays (18 or 19) have survived complete than those of Sophocles and the third great Greek tragedian Aeschylus (seven each) combined. Euripides’ Trojan Women, written in the year that Athens sacked the neutral island state of Melos, killed all its adult males and sold the women and children into slavery, remains one of the most powerful anti-war plays ever written. As well as Katie Mitchell’s brutal 2007 production at the National, it has drawn many recent interpretations, for obvious reasons, including Olympics poet Caroline Bird’s version set in the mother and baby unit of a women’s prison.
Coming from such a patriarchal society, it is striking how important women’s stories and outlooks are in Greek tragedy. Another popular Euripidean revival, Medea, which was at the National last year, is one of three tragedies (this one a new version by Rachel Cusk) featuring in the Greeks season at Islington’s Almeida Theatre later this year. It tells of the awful revenge exacted by Medea against her husband Jason (of Argonauts fame) when she murders their children. Set aside the fact that this is a crime most commonly committed by men. Euripides’ Medea is no caricature devil-woman. She is portrayed with depth, even empathy; the transgressive nature of her action is the very thing that shakes up and challenges received notions of what women should be.
Euripides’ The Bacchae, staged in March at Theatro Technis in Camden with masks specially created for the predominantly female cast, is also due to feature in the Almeida season. The sheer horror of the play has a freshly potent contemporary resonance in the light of Islamist and other religiously-inspired fanaticism. It culminates with Pentheus, the ruler of Thebes, being torn limb from limb by devotees of the god Dionysus led by his own mother because he has failed to show the god due respect.
His mother, entranced by Dionysus into thinking that she has killed a young lion, parades Pentheus’s head through the streets of Thebes until eventually she is brought to her senses with the awful realisation of what she has done. Even then, Dionysus is not satisfied, imposing exile and unending misfortune on the whole family.
‘Your actions against us are too severe,’ protests Pentheus’s grandfather Cadmus. ‘I was a born a god and you insulted me,’ says Dionysus. ‘Angry gods should not act like humans,’ argues Cadmus, to which Dionysus simply responds ‘My father Zeus willed all this long ago’ before turning Cadmus and his wife into serpents.
I have a proposal, if I can find a theatre bold enough to stage it, to produce a version of The Bacchae set in Raqqa or Mosul, with the chorus masks replaced by burkas and Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, self-proclaimed caliph of the so-called Islamic State, standing in for Dionysus. I’m sure he’d appreciate the comparison.
We work ourselves into the ground for little economic benefit. It's high time to for a change, writes Aidan Harper.
Deregulation and tax loopholes are justified by saying that they 'protect growth'. But really, they just protect the wealthy, writes James Fox
Inequality is often treated as a law of nature - but really, it's the result of conscious political choices. It's time to choose equality, writes the IPPR's Carys Roberts.
Tom Palmer, aka Agent Kingfisher, was the 'messiah' of London's squatting scene until his death last year. But who was responsible for his fate? MI5, late capitalism or simply a drug overdose? Matt Broomfield investigates.
'Docs Not Cops' write that we must resist attempts to make our NHS any less universal
Louis Mendee explains the real human costs of climate change for the global south.
From climate change to automation to demographic shifts, Mathew Lawrence explains the challenges our economy will face in the coming decade.
Fifty years after the Abortion Act, women are still dying from being denied basic services, write activists from Feminist Fightback
We need to tackle the patronising ideology that lets Tory think-tanks sneer at social tenants, writes Emma Dent Coad
Acid Corbynism allows people to imagine a future beyond the paltry offerings of capitalism, writes Keir Milburn
Labour Party laws are being used to quash dissent
Richard Kuper writes that Labour's authorities are more concerned with suppressing pro-Palestine activism than with actually tackling antisemitism
Catalan independence is not just ‘nationalism’ – it’s a rebellion against nationalism
Ignasi Bernat and David Whyte argue that Catalonia's independence movement is driven by solidarity – and resistance to far-right Spanish nationalists
Tabloids do not represent the working class
The tabloid press claims to be an authentic voice of the working class - but it's run by and for the elites, writes Matt Thompson
As London City Airport turns 30, let’s imagine a world without it
London City Airport has faced resistance for its entire lifetime, writes Ali Tamlit – and some day soon we will win
The first world war sowed the seeds of the Russian revolution
An excerpt from 'October', China Mieville's book revisiting the story of the Russian Revolution
Academies run ‘on the basis of fear’
Wakefield City Academies Trust (WCAT) was described in a damning report as an organisation run 'on the basis of fear'. Jon Trickett MP examines an education system in crisis.
‘There is no turning back to a time when there wasn’t migration to Britain’
David Renton reviews the Migration Museum's latest exhibition
#MeToo is necessary – but I’m sick of having to prove my humanity
Women are expected to reveal personal trauma to be taken seriously, writes Eleanor Penny
Meet the digital feminists
We're building new online tools to create a new feminist community and tackle sexism wherever we find it, writes Franziska Grobke
The Marikana women’s fight for justice, five years on
Marienna Pope-Weidemann meets Sikhala Sonke, a grassroots social justice group led by the women of Marikana
Forget ‘Columbus Day’ – this is the Day of Indigenous Resistance
By Leyli Horna, Marcela Terán and Sebastián Ordonez for Wretched of the Earth
Uber and the corporate capture of e-petitions
Steve Andrews looks at a profit-making petition platform's questionable relationship with the cab company
You might be a centrist if…
What does 'centrist' mean? Tom Walker identifies the key markers to help you spot centrism in the wild
Black Journalism Fund Open Editorial Meeting in Leeds
Friday 13th October, 5pm to 7pm, meeting inside the Laidlaw Library, Leeds University
This leadership contest can transform Scottish Labour
Martyn Cook argues that with a new left-wing leader the Scottish Labour Party can make a comeback
Review: No Is Not Enough
Samir Dathi reviews No Is Not Enough: Defeating the New Shock Politics, by Naomi Klein
Building Corbyn’s Labour from the ground up: How ‘the left’ won in Hackney South
Heather Mendick has gone from phone-banker at Corbyn for Leader to Hackney Momentum organiser to secretary of her local party. Here, she shares her top tips on transforming Labour from the bottom up
Five things to know about the independence movement in Catalonia
James O'Nions looks at the underlying dynamics of the Catalan independence movement
‘This building will be a library!’ From referendum to general strike in Catalonia
Ignasi Bernat and David Whyte report from the Catalan general strike, as the movements prepare to build a new republic
Chlorine chickens are just the start: Liam Fox’s Brexit trade free-for-all
A hard-right free marketer is now in charge of our trade policy. We urgently need to develop an alternative vision, writes Nick Dearden
There is no ‘cult of Corbyn’ – this is a movement preparing for power
The pundits still don’t understand that Labour’s new energy is about ‘we’ not ‘me’, writes Hilary Wainwright