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This year marks the 400th anniversary of the birth of the greatest revolutionary and most argumentatively religious poet of the English language – a good reason to re-enter the fierce debates and visionary scenes of his epic poem Paradise Lost. The account in Book Two of the assembly and speeches of the rebels against God foreshadows all such arguments through history. Milton went blind and had to compose by dictating; yet his imagined hosts of angels and devils and his dizzying perspectives of celestial and infernal space etch themselves into your mind. In his prose writings on divorce and freedom of speech, he was way ahead of his time.
Quite simply, the best living inheritor of Milton’s anger, skill and grandeur. From his early sonnets about being the son of northern working-class parents to his haunting ballad about a charred Iraqi soldier [first printed in the Guardian], he tells the truth about war and class. He has invented a new form of television documentary, the ‘film/poem’, in which he speaks about Hiroshima and the Holocaust, Alzheimer’s and the collapse of Soviet communism. The music of his verse makes you want to dance; his Yorkshire humour lights up the darkest landscape.
Philip Roth (Jonathan Cape, 2006)
Sex and, increasingly, death are the subjects of America’s finest living novelist. Everyman (2006) is a good introduction to his world of inexhaustible talkers, seductive women and restless men. Or, like many other readers, you could start with his controversial novel Portnoy’s Complaint (1969), which put masturbation into the heartland of middle-class Jewish America. Roth is an inveterate questioner and troublemaker. In his sixth decade he began a series of big novels, which take on American politics and history, notably American Pastoral, a novelist’s take on the Vietnam war, ‘the indigenous American berserk’. Like all the best novelists he’s both serious and hilarious.
Walter Benjamin (Schocken Books, 1969)
A collection of essays by the outstanding German critic and philosopher, who committed suicide in 1940 on the Franco-Spanish border, running away from the Nazis. A friend of Brecht, and also of Gershom Scholem, the great modern scholar of Jewish mysticism, Benjamin is the subtlest Marxist thinker I know. This collection contains essays that remain necessary for thinking about the world now: The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction and Theses on the Philosophy of History, which begins with Paul Klee’s painting of ‘the angel of history’, transfixed by the debris of the past. ‘Where we perceive a chain of events, he sees one single catastrophe which keeps piling wreckage and hurls it in front of his feet.’ I re-read Benjamin because he was a communist with an indelible sense of tragedy.
The Golden Notebook
On a hot summer’s day by a swimming-pool in Bristol in 1962, I was chatting up a young woman with liquid eyes, sweet-talking her by reading out chunks of Lessing’s novel. She asked me if she could borrow it. I never saw her or the book again, and had to buy another copy.
I love this book because it breaks open all the forms. Lessing describes it as ‘an attempt to break a form; to break certain forms of consciousness and go beyond them. While writing it, I found I did not believe some of the things I thought I believed: or rather, that I hold in my mind at the same time beliefs and ideas that are apparently contradictory. Why not? We are, after all, living in the middle of a whirlwind.’
I shall take with me the complete works of Shakespeare, but this is the play I will return to most often. Speeches of it are already engraved in my memory. I imagine myself quoting out loud to bewildered penguins taking refuge from global warming:
Poor naked wretches, wheresoe’er you are,
That bide the pelting of this pitiless storm,
How shall your houseless heads and unfed sides,
Your loop’d and window’d raggedness, defend you
From seasons such as these?
There’s nothing in world drama to match Lear’s account of civilisation’s breakdown, torture, the journey to sanity through madness, love reconquered too late. There’s even a succinct description of socialism out of the mouth of a character caught in Shakespeare’s world-shaking storm: ‘Distribution should undo excess /And each man have enough.’
Bertolt Brecht (Methuen, 1980)
A life that ran from anarchy and appetite to a watchful communist hope, a lifetime that drove Brecht into exile, ‘changing countries more often than shoes’, is refracted in these indestructible poems. Our greatest Marxist playwright, Brecht has survived the nitpicking of cold war critics and the subservience of Soviet cultural commissars. He wrote his best plays – Mother Courage, The Good Person of Setzuan, The Life of Galileo – as a refugee without a theatre to see them put on. Then he returned to East Germany, where he was given a theatre and created one powerful production after another, though tussling with party bureaucrats. His poems became the repository of his true thoughts. In 1953, when there was a workers’ rising against the government, he couldn’t resist writing this classic statement against tyranny:
After the uprising of the 17th of June
The Secretary of the Writers’ Union
Had leaflets distributed in the Stalinallee
Stating that the people
Had forfeited the confidence of the government
And could win it back only
By redoubled efforts. Would it not be easier
In that case for the government
To dissolve the people
And elect another?
(Translated by Derek Bowman)
Michael Kustow has just completed A Passage from India, based on his life in 2006/7, and also written The Half, featuring Simon Annand’s photographs of actors in their dressing-rooms, which Faber and Faber will publish this autumn
The Spanish state is seizing ballot papers and raiding meetings, write Ignasi Bernat and David Whyte – but it is being met with united resistance
The crunch executive meeting ahead of Labour conference agreed some welcome changes, writes Michael Calderbank, but there is still much further to go
Dipesh Pandya speaks to documentary film-maker Sanjay Kak, who for 30 years has been working outside the mainstream to tell a story rooted in the struggles of those excluded by India’s militarism and its narrative of neoliberal growth
Jeremy Gilbert on how radical Labour politics can be inspired by the utopianism of the counterculture
Disasters have unequal impacts – it's the poor and marginalised who suffer most. David Harvey writes on Hurricane Harvey
Survivors of the fire are still relying on thousands of community volunteers, writes Dan Renwick - but the failed council is plotting a comeback
What if it's not us who are sick, asks Rod Tweedy, but a system at odds with who we are as social beings?
The people could reach a democratic and non-violent solution if they were freed from US meddling, argues Boaventura de Sousa Santos
A decade after the start of the crash, economic power is in our hands – we must take it, writes Ann Pettifor
Flooding the cradle of civilisation: A 12,000 year old town in Kurdistan battles for survival
It’s one of the oldest continually inhabited places on earth, but a new dam has put Hasankeyf under threat, write Eliza Egret and Tom Anderson
New model activism: Putting Labour in office and the people in power
Hilary Wainwright examines how the ‘new politics’ needs to be about both winning electoral power and building transformative power
What is ‘free movement plus’?
A new report proposes an approach that can push back against the tide of anti-immigrant sentiment. Luke Cooper explains
The World Transformed: Red Pepper’s pick of the festival
Red Pepper is proud to be part of organising The World Transformed, in Brighton from 23-26 September. Here are our highlights from the programme
Working class theatre: Save Our Steel takes the stage
A new play inspired by Port Talbot’s ‘Save Our Steel’ campaign asks questions about the working class leaders of today. Adam Johannes talks to co-director Rhiannon White about the project, the people and the politics behind it
The dawn of commons politics
As supporters of the new 'commons politics' win office in a variety of European cities, Stacco Troncoso and Ann Marie Utratel chart where this movement came from – and where it may be going
A very social economist
Hilary Wainwright says the ideas of Robin Murray, who died in June, offer a practical alternative to neoliberalism
Art the Arms Fair: making art not war
Amy Corcoran on organising artistic resistance to the weapons dealers’ London showcase
Beware the automated landlord
Tenants of the automated landlord are effectively paying two rents: one in money, the other in information for data harvesting, writes Desiree Fields
Black Journalism Fund – Open Editorial Meeting
3-5pm Saturday 23rd September at The World Transformed in Brighton
Immigration detention: How the government is breaking its own rules
Detention is being used to punish ex-prisoners all over again, writes Annahita Moradi
A better way to regenerate a community
Gilbert Jassey describes a pioneering project that is bringing migrants and local people together to repopulate a village in rural Spain
Fast food workers stand up for themselves and #McStrike – we’re loving it!
McDonald's workers are striking for the first time ever in Britain, reports Michael Calderbank
Two years of broken promises: how the UK has failed refugees
Stefan Schmid investigates the ways Syrian refugees have been treated since the media spotlight faded
West Papua’s silent genocide
The brutal occupation of West Papua is under-reported - but UK and US corporations are profiting from the violence, write Eliza Egret and Tom Anderson
Activate, the new ‘Tory Momentum’, is 100% astroturf
The Conservatives’ effort at a grassroots youth movement is embarrassingly inept, writes Samantha Stevens
Peer-to-peer production and the partner state
Michel Bauwens and Vasilis Kostakis argue that we need to move to a commons-centric society – with a state fit for the digital age
Imagining a future free of oppression
Writer, artist and organiser Ama Josephine Budge says holding on to our imagination of tomorrow helps create a different understanding today
The ‘alt-right’ is an unstable coalition – with one thing holding it together
Mike Isaacson argues that efforts to define the alt-right are in danger of missing its central component: eugenics
Fighting for Peace: the battles that inspired generations of anti-war campaigners
Now the threat of nuclear war looms nearer again, we share the experience of eighty-year-old activist Ernest Rodker, whose work is displayed at The Imperial War Museum. With Jane Shallice and Jenny Nelson he discussed a recent history of the anti-war movement.
Put public purpose at the heart of government
Victoria Chick stresses the need to restore the public good to economic decision-making
Don’t let the world’s biggest arms fair turn 20
Eliza Egret talks to activists involved in almost two decades of protest against London’s DSEI arms show
The new municipalism is part of a proud radical history
Molly Conisbee reflects on the history of citizens taking collective control of local services
With the rise of Corbyn, is there still a place for the Green Party?
Former Green principal speaker Derek Wall says the party may struggle in the battle for votes, but can still be important in the battle of ideas
Fearless Cities: the new urban movements
A wave of new municipalist movements has been experimenting with how to take – and transform – power in cities large and small. Bertie Russell and Oscar Reyes report on the growing success of radical urban politics around the world
A musical fightback against school arts cuts
Elliot Clay on why his new musical turns the spotlight on the damage austerity has done to arts education, through the story of one school band's battle
Neoliberalism: the break-up tour
Sarah Woods and Andrew Simms ask why, given the trail of destruction it has left, we are still dancing to the neoliberal tune
Cat Smith MP: ‘Jeremy Corbyn has authenticity. You can’t fake that’
Cat Smith, shadow minister for voter engagement and youth affairs and one of the original parliamentary backers of Corbyn’s leadership, speaks to Ashish Ghadiali
To stop the BBC interviewing climate deniers, we need to make climate change less boring
To stop cranks like Lord Lawson getting airtime, we need to provoke more interesting debates around climate change than whether it's real or not, writes Leo Barasi
Tory Glastonbury? Money can’t buy you cultural relevance
Adam Peggs on why the left has more fun